Pentateuch was first terraformed during the Second Republic by the great Doramos himself. This world subsequently attracted various mystics and back-to-nature farmers. The mystics included Gjartin pagan goddess worshipers, some of the more liberal Hesychast monks in the Universal Church, and adherents of other faiths.

After the Fall of the Republic in 4000, the Universal Church quickly moved in to take over Pentateuch, and it was ruled by the most hard-line elements of the Church's Urth Orthodox, Brother Battle, and Avestite sects. This led to a centuries-spanning, on-and-off war between the Church and the Orthoclast Party, with the Orthoclasts often utilizing terrorist and guerrilla tactics and the Church using Brother Battle units and flame-gun-wielding Inquisitors. In more recent centuries, the planet became a leading home for the underground, heretical Eskatonic Order, a breakaway movement from the Universal Church. After the Symbiot Wars (4900-4950) broke out on distant worlds like Absolution, Daishan, and Stigmata, and Eskatonic theurgy (religious magic) proved effective against the Symbiots, the Pentateuch Concordat integrated the Eskatonics into the Church and granted Pentateuch Eskatonic-controlled government. Even so, to this day Pentateuch still retains a reputation as a freethinking planet by Known Worlds standards.

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